According to the findings, the obesity epidemic spread rapidly during the 1990s in all states, regions and demographic groups in the United States. Obesity (defined as being more than 30% above ideal body weight) in the population increased from 12.0 in 1991 to 17.9 in 1998.Obesity is serious because it is associated with poorer mental health outcomes and lower quality of life. Obesity is also associated with leading causes of death in the United States and worldwide, such as diabetes, heart disease, stroke and some cancers. Diabetes and heart disease are health problems that can result from being overweight.
Being overweight can also affect a person's joints, breathing, sleep, mood and energy levels. Therefore, being overweight can affect a person's entire quality of life. Obesity poses a major public health challenge. Each year, obesity contributes to some 112.Obese adults are at increased risk of many serious diseases, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, type 2 diabetes and its complications, coronary heart disease, stroke, gall bladder disease, osteoarthritis, sleep apnoea and respiratory problems, as well as cancers of the endometrium, 6 Children with a high body mass index (BMI), an indicator of excess body weight, are more likely than those with a normal BMI to have insulin resistance7 (which can lead to diabetes), high blood pressure and unhealthy levels of fats and other lipids.In addition, obese children often become obese adults; some studies have found that even children aged 2-5 years with a high BMI are likely to become obese adults, 8 In addition to physical illness, obese adults and children may also suffer from social stigma and discrimination, as well as psychological problems.
This paper highlights trends, health consequences and causes related to the obesity epidemic. Given the multiple societal changes behind the epidemic, this paper also proposes health promotion actions that can be taken by multiple sectors of society. Obesity is a complex disease involving an excessive amount of body fat. Obesity is not just an aesthetic concern.
It is a medical problem that increases the risk of other diseases and health problems, such as heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure and certain cancers. To understand the true extent of the obesity epidemic in the United States, we must first understand what it really means to be overweight. Generally, doctors and nutritionists classify people as underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese. These different classifications are determined by body mass index (BMI), or a measure of body fat based on height and weight.
To get a basic idea, this chart from the CDC approximates what that means for someone who is 5'7" tall. For children, age must be considered when defining overweight and obesity. Obesity often begins in childhood and is linked to psychological problems, asthma, diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in childhood. Because many obese children grow into obese adults, childhood obesity is strongly related to mortality and morbidity in adulthood (Reilly et al.
Because obesity disproportionately affects certain racial and ethnic minority groups in both the childhood and adult populations, it underlies many of the health disparities facing our nation. Overweight and obesity, once considered a problem of high-income countries, are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, especially in urban settings. Lack of sleep, stress and low rates of breastfeeding are also believed to contribute to children's long-term risk of obesity. People with obesity may take in more calories before they feel full, feel hungry earlier or eat more due to stress or anxiety.
Increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary behaviour is associated with lower rates of obesity, and reduces the risk of many of the diseases associated with obesity, such as diabetes and heart disease. Doctors use the terms overweight or obesity to indicate whether someone is more likely to develop weight-related health problems. The root cause of obesity and overweight is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended. Obesity is a complex health problem resulting from a combination of causes and individual factors such as behaviour and genetics.
In children and adolescents aged 2-19 years, a BMI at or above the 85th percentile but below the 95th percentile indicates overweight; a child with a BMI at or above the 95th percentile is considered to be obese. Obesity is not only a "waist control" problem, but is considered a chronic disease by the American Medical Association, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, the American College of Endocrinology, the Endocrine Society, the Obesity Society, the American Society of Bariatric Physicians and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). In recent decades, the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in the United States, tripling among children and doubling among adults. For more information, visit Health effects of overweight and obesity and Clinical guidelines for the identification, assessment and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults.
However, since excess body fat is difficult to measure directly, obesity is usually defined as excess body weight as measured by BMI. While the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and the National School Breakfast and School Lunch Program appear to have a positive impact on obesity in young children, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (Food Stamps) may have a negative impact, especially in cities where the cost of food is high (Kimbro & Rigby, 20 ; the authors suggest that providing subsidised meals may be a more effective way to ensure high quality nutrition in poor children. If you are concerned about your weight or related health problems, ask your doctor about obesity management.