Who Reports On Obesity In India?

A study reporting on global trends estimated that 27.8% of all Indians would be overweight and 5.0% obese by 2030. Abstract - Background - Methods - Discussion.

Who Reports On Obesity In India?

A study reporting on global trends estimated that 27.8% of all Indians would be overweight and 5.0% obese by 2030. Abstract - Background - Methods - Discussion. Our results have shown that obesity is a highly prevalent condition across the country, with an estimated 40.32 e weighted prevalence among adults aged 18-80 years. South India (46.51%) shows the highest prevalence, while East India shows the lowest (32.96%).

Among the other regions, the north, west and northwest are well above the national average, showing a respective prevalence of 45.33%, 44.27% and 43.3%; while the northeast and central regions are well below the national average, with a respective prevalence of 37.73% and 36.58%. The results of our study highlight the importance of non-modifiable (age and sex) and modifiable (education levels and physical activity levels) factors in determining obesity. The population over 40 years of age is more obese (45.81%) while those under 40 years of age are less obese (34.58%). In addition to age, gender is another determinant of obesity, with females showing a higher prevalence (41.88%) compared to males (38.67%).

Murali Venkatrao conceptualised the stratified analysis methodology, performed the sample analysis and drafted the manuscript. Dr. Raghuram Nagarathna, being the principal investigator and guarantor of this study, had full access to all the study data and took responsibility for the integrity of the data and its analysis. Additional analyses were conducted by Dr.

Suchitra Patil. Vijaya Majumdar and Dr. Sunanda Rathi oversaw the planning, data collection and supervision of participants at the study sites. Hongasandra Nagendra conceptualised the study and supervised its implementation.

What are obesity and overweight BMI is the most useful population-level measure of overweight and obesity, as it is the same for both sexes and for all ages of adults. However, it should be considered a rough guide because it may not correspond to the same degree of fatness in different individuals. For children, age should be taken into account when defining overweight and obesity. Overweight and obesity are associated with more deaths worldwide than underweight.

Globally, more people are obese than underweight, and this is true in all regions except parts of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Childhood obesity is associated with an increased likelihood of obesity, premature death and disability in adulthood. But in addition to increased future risks, obese children experience respiratory difficulties, increased risk of fractures, hypertension, early markers of cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and psychological effects. Children in low- and middle-income countries are more vulnerable to inadequate prenatal, infant and child nutrition.

At the same time, these children are exposed to foods that are high in fat, sugars and salt, energy-dense and low in micronutrients, which are often lower in cost but also lower in nutritional quality. These dietary patterns, together with lower levels of physical activity, are leading to a sharp increase in childhood obesity, while malnutrition problems remain unresolved. Overweight and obesity and related non-communicable diseases are largely preventable. Supportive environments and communities are key to shaping people's choices, making healthier food choices and regular physical activity the easiest option (the most accessible, available and affordable option) and thus preventing overweight and obesity.

It was said that health may be a low priority in India, with most of the attention being given to diseases common to the rural population, malnutrition and infectious diseases. Stakeholders felt that neither the government nor insurers classify obesity as a disease, and instead obesity is subsumed under the nutrition agenda. This is reflected in the fact that government financial investment in obesity is limited (although its policy investment extends to a sugar tax). At best, most see obesity as just a risk factor for other diseases.

Although there is a strategy for non-communicable diseases (and an accompanying implementation guide), stakeholders reported that there is no real focus on obesity within it. Clinical guidelines for the management of obesity are available from various medical bodies, but as these are not clearly endorsed by the government, it was suggested that uptake of these guidelines is low. There is no specialised training in obesity in India. The Food Safety Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) wants to introduce a traffic light labelling system for foods sold in school canteens and vending machines in an attempt to curb the consumption of sugary drinks, highly processed foods and confectionery.

This review summarises approaches to obesity management in "real life mode" and in the context of Asian Indian patients. The consensus physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are the result of the absence of specific physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians. The genesis of their development lies in the fact that international physical activity guidelines have been developed based on data available for Caucasians. Since Asian Indians are predisposed to contracting non-communicable diseases at a much younger age than Caucasians, the consensus group on physical activity in India formulated these guidelines.

These focus on exercise prescription for Indian adults, adolescents and children. This consensus statement was developed to revise the guidelines on diagnosis of obesity, abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome, physical activity and pharmacological treatment and bariatric surgery for obesity in Asian Indians. These revised guidelines were formulated because the existing cut-off points for overweight and obesity among Asian Indians were not adequate, as they are predisposed to develop obesity and its comorbidities at lower cut-off points. These guidelines are an evidence-based outcome that will be used nationwide to manage the growing burden of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

Members of the Coalition include ministers and senior government officials, representatives from the Planning Commission, academia, NGOs, national and international development partners, the private sector and the media. The Coalition is a unique platform that brings together key stakeholders to advocate for improved nutrition policies and programmes in India. Obesity in India has reached epidemic proportions in the 21st century, with morbid obesity affecting 5 per cent of the country's population. India is following the trend of other developing countries, which are becoming increasingly obese.

Processed and unhealthy foods have become much more accessible following India's continued integration into global food markets. This, combined with rising middle class incomes, is increasing the average caloric intake per individual among middle and upper class households. Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and NGOs such as the Indian Heart Association have been raising awareness of this issue. In any case, the education penalty is more pronounced in the urban population (46.65 per cent of urban college-educated adults are obese) compared to the rural population (35.71 per cent of rural college-educated adults are obese).

We adjusted the predicted mortality rates to account for differential mortality between overweight and obese individuals and those in lower weight categories. We found that obesity prevalence in 2040 is expected to be lower than levels currently observed in some of the world's most industrialised economies, implying that India could be susceptible to a significant increase in obesity prevalence beyond 2040. Obesity was determined by body mass index, and cross-tabulations were calculated across area, age, gender, education, physical activity and area. Therefore, prevention of overweight and obesity should aim at creating environments that encourage behavioural changes in terms of diet and physical activity.

Moreover, 29.1 per cent of men and 29.9 per cent of women are expected to be overweight or obese by 2030. Thus, university-educated men have higher levels of obesity than uneducated men (55.2% vs. 55.9%). In the country as a whole, obesity tends to be higher among women (41.88%) compared to men (38.67%), higher in urban regions (44.17%) compared to rural regions (36.08%), and higher among those over 40 years old (45.81%) compared to those under 40 years old (34.58%).

Furthermore, the changing nature of the association of overweight and obesity with socio-economic status makes it very difficult to predict in the future what would be established externally to the model. We have included a table in File S2 that compares the results of the other forecasts of overweight and obesity in India, along with their limitations. Recent studies have reported that, globally, more than 1.9 billion adults are overweight and 650 million are obese. In fact, our results show that even in areas where obesity is significantly lower than the national average, the urban population has a high prevalence of obesity.

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